The 1996 Criminal Code of the Russian Federation replaces the 1960 RSFSR Criminal Code and was adopted by the State Duma on 24 May 1996. It officially entered into force on 1 January 1997. This updated translation by W.E. Butler contains all amendments up to 1 September 1999. Appended is an index which serves simultaneously as a glossary of the principal terms of Russian criminal law, drawing in part on Butler's earlier translations of the 1958 Fundamental Principles of Criminal Legislation of the USSR and the 1960 RSFSR Criminal Code. <P>The introduction examines criminal law reforms in the Russian Federation, including Russian legal policy toward criminal law. The editor also includes an explanation of how to use the criminal code.