There is little doubt that quality of life can be substantially improved by hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Evidence has also accumulated concerning the effects of estrogen in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. However, recent studies have cast some doubts about the effectiveness of HRT in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases as well as highlighting the possibility of undesirable effects in long-term use. A comprehensive clinical reference, Menopause: Hormones and Cancer examines the issues involved in the use of HRT. It presents new information on steroid receptors, estrogens and estrogen therapy, oral contraception, hormone therapies for ovarian cancer, progesterone therapy, endometrial cancer, phytoestrogens, hormone replacement therapy, estrogen receptors, neurosteroids, prophylactic oophorectomy and estrogen or testosterone implants, and the relationship between sex steroid therapy and colon cancer. The use of HRT is still relatively new and must be studied for many years before the alleged beneficial preventive effects can be seen and understood. In addition, long-term treatment, other than having the desired positive effects, also has some possible undesirable side effects that require further study. In Menopause: Hormones and Cancer top experts in the field focus on understanding the cardiovascular benefits of HRT and the long-term risks.