Cardiac surgery procedures are often compromised by neurological complications. Many of these problems can be avoided by careful assessment and monitoring of the patient before, during, and after surgery. This definitive text describes the ways in which cardiac surgery affects the brain, and discusses how and why brain dysfunction occurs. Expert guidance on treatment and, crucially, prevention is included. Special emphasis is given to clinical investigation of the patient and assessment of risk factors Intraoperative monitoring is acknowledged as being particularly significant for neurological outcome, and the authors suggest measures for minimizing risks during this period.