Chronic pelvic pain [CPP] - defined as pain of anatomic origin that affects behavior and lasts longer than six months - is one of the most common medical problems affecting women today. Clinicians have begun to realize that the incidence is much greater that initially thought. CPP patients present to different medical specialists depending upon primary symptoms. Patients may also present with referred pain or multiple sites of pain origin, therefore it is imperative that clinicians gain an understanding of the interplay between the multiple organ systems that serve as potential sources of pain. CPP is a difficult problem to manage. In many situations the exact underlying cause is uncertain. In others, the pathology thought to be contributory may turn out to be coincidental. It is well recognized that treatment is often of limited success.