Distributed decision making is described in this book from a hierarchical perspective. A unified approach allows to treat such seemingly diverse fields as multi-level decision making, hierarchical production planning, principal agent theory, hierarchical negotiations, and dynamic games within the framework of a general pair of functional equations. In doing so, the book covers the range from a multi-level one-person decision problem to a multi-person antagonistic planning and leadership situation. These general ideas are illustrated with numerous examples and real-life planning situations. In addition, the treatise provides a theoretical foundation for important problem areas in business administration, such as hierarchical production planning, the problems of design and implementation, modern concepts in managerial accounting, and supply chain management.