The multi-factorial nature of cardiovascular disease has important implications for the planning of effective treatment strategies. Lifestyle factors such as diet, smoking history and exercise combine with endogenous predictors such as ethnicity and family history to give every individual a unique risk profile. To achieve a better outcome for the patient, we first need to understand how these factors work, singly and in combination, to cause or accelerate progression of disease. With this knowledge, we can then develop more effective strategies for management that incorporate changes in lifestyle as well as pharmacological combination therapy for hypertension, dyslipidaemia, etc. In this volume, the authors demonstrate how an ability to measure and quantify risk enables us to isolate key predictors of morbidity and informs the formulation of appropriate treatment strategies.