Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis are related diseases caused by single celled organisms (protozoa) transmitted by insects. Between them, these diseases are responsible for much suffering among humans and livestock and so a greater understanding of their biology is a vital part of the campaign to control them. Modern molecular techniques available for use in understanding the control of these diseases are becoming more sophisticated and are increasingly becoming universally applicable to a wide variety of diseases.This book brings together the research approaches that are used interchangeably to understand both Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis. Examples of such fruitful integration can be seen in a number of research areas: genome mapping, molecular and population genetic approaches to epidemiology, studies on polyamine metabolism and possible targets for rational drug design, studies on cellular signalling as a route to understanding host-parasite interactions and studies on chemotherapy and drug resistance. There are also chapters that consider those features that are unique to either Trypanosomiasis or Leishmaniasis. Thus a broad overview of the biology of each disease from the molecular level right up to the whole animal is provided. Contributors come from the leading research groups working on these diseases and include clinicians, laboratory based researchers and social scientists. The book provides an up-to-date summary of the advances in the understanding of these diseases that have come about through the use of modern technologies. By presenting an integration of research into both Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis this book provides an innovative contribution to the literature in this area. It is important reading for all parasitologists, pharmacologists, epidemiologists and clinicians working with these organisms. It is also a useful resource for veterinarians, public health workers, policy makers and social scientists concerned with Trypanosomiasis or Leishmaniasis.